Classics of Modern Philosophy

Works of Philosophers from 17th Century to 19th Century

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Bacon (Francis Bacon) 1561-1626

The Advancement of Learning

The Essays

The Great Instauration

The New Atlantis

The New Organon

Valerius Terminus: Of the Interpretation of Nature

Preparative toward a Natural and Experimental History


Hobbes (Thomas Hobbes) 1588–1679


Philosophicall rudiments concerning government and society

The Elements of Law Natural and Politic


Descartes (Rene Descartes) 1596-1650

Discourse On the Method of Rightly Conducting the Reason

Meditations on First Philosophy


Pascal (Blaise Pascal) 1623-1662


The Provincial Letters


Spinoza (Benedict de Spinoza) 1632-1677

A Theologico-Political Treatise and A Political Treatise


On the Improvement of the Understanding


Locke (John Locke) 1632-1704

A Letter Concerning Toleration

An Essay Concerning Human Understanding

The Second Treatise of Civil Government


Leibniz (Gottfried Willhelm Leibniz) 1646-1716

The Monadology


Berkeley (George Berkeley) 1685-1753

A Treatise Concerning the Principles of Human Knowledge

An Essay Towards a New Theory of Vision

The Querist

Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous


Butler (Joseph Butler) 1692-1752

Human Nature and Other Sermons


Hume (David Hume) 1711-1776

A Treatise of Human Nature

An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding

An Enquiry Concerning The Principles Of Morals

Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion

Essays On Suicide And The Immortality Of The Soul

My Own Life

The Natural History of Religion


Rousseau (Jean-Jacques Rousseau) 1712-1788

A Discourse on Political Economy

A Discourse Upon The Origin And The Foundation Of The Inequality



The Social Contract


Smith (Adam Smith) 1723-1790

An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations


Kant (Immanuel Kant) 1724-1804

Fundamental Principles of the Metaphysic of Morals

Perpetual Peace

The Critique of Judgement

The Critique of Practical Reason

The Critique of Pure Reason (Meiklejohn tr.)

The Critique of Pure Reason (Smith tr.)

The Metaphysical Elements of Ethics

The Science of Right

Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone

What is Enlightenment


Burke (Edmund Burke) 1729-1797

Reflections on the Revolution in France


Paine (Thomas Paine) 1737-1809

Common Sense

The Age of Reason

The American Crisis

The Rights of Man


Paley (William Paley) 1743-1805

Evidences of Christianity


Wollstonecraft (Mary Wollstonecraft) 1759-1797

Letters written during a short residence in Sweden, Norway and Denmark

Maria, or The Wrongs of Woman

Vindication of the Rights of Woman


Saint-Simon (Comte de Saint-Simon) 1760-1825

Memoirs of Louis XIV


Hegel (Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel) 1770-1831

Lectures on Aesthetics

Philosophy of History

Philosophy of Religion

Philosophy of Right


Schopenhauer (Arthur Schopenhauer) 1788-1860



Mill (John Stuart Mill) 1806-1873


On Liberty

Representative Government

Speech In Favor of Capital Punishment

The Subjection of Women



Marx (Karl Marx) 1818-1883

A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy


The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte

(Marx and Engels) Manifesto of the Communist Party


Engels (Frederick Engels) 1820-1895

Socialism: Utopian and Scientific